Adobe Illustrator file format, which is actually
a type of Encapsulated Postscript.
Color - color produced by light
falling onto a surface, as compared to subtractive
color. The additive primary colors are red, green
Acrobat - A popular software
program for the conversion of documents into
the portable document file (PDF) format. Through
Acrobat or another PDF, users can read electronic
versions of printed documents that maintain the
attributes (bold and italic type and other formatting
choices) assigned to a printed original.
Paper - ISO paper size 210 x
297mm used for Letterhead.
Against the Grain -
At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared
to with the grain. Also called across the grain and cross grain.
A jagged or "staircase" effect in a raster image,
caused by an insufficient number of image samples.
channel - An eight-bit channel
reserved by some image-processing applications
for masking or retaining additional color information.
Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork
has been given to the service bureau, separator or
printer. The change could be in copy, specifications
Paper - Roughest finish offered
on offset paper.
Coating - Coating in a water
base and applied like ink by a printing press
to protect and enhance the printing underneath.
A visible defect in an electronic image, caused by
limitations in the reproduction process (hardware
or software). Aliasing patterns are an example of
All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations,
intended for printing. Also called art.
Alterations (AA's) - At the proofing
stage, changes the client requests to be made
concerning the original art provided. AA's are
considered an additional cost to the client usually.
banding. An electronic prepress term referring to visible steps in shades
of a gradient.
size - The standard size of sheets
of paper used to calculate basis weight in the
United States and Canada.
weight - In the United States
and Canada, the weight, in pounds, of a ream
(500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size.
Also called ream weight and substance weight
(sub weight). In countries using ISO paper sizes,
the weight, in grams, of one square meter of
paper. Also called grammage and ream weight.
Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the
joining of leafs or signatures together with either
wire, glue or other means.
Usually a department within a printing company responsible
for collating, folding and trimming various printing
An image represented by an array of picture elements,
each of which is encoded as one or more binary digits.
Category of paperboard ranging in thickness from
15 to 48 points.
Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset
press, that receives the inked image from the plate
and transfers it to the surface to be printed.
Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page
image - Image debossed, embossed
or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.
(1) The printed text of a book not including endpapers
or covers. (2) The size of type from the top of the
ascenders to the bottom of the descenders.
type - Text set in paragraph
or block form, as distinguished from heads and
display type matter.
Standard text that is stored electronically and can
be rearranged and combined with fresh information
to produce new documents.
An enlargement, usually used with graphic images
paper - General term for paper
over 110# index, 80# cover or 200 gsm that is
commonly used for products such as file folders,
displays and post cards. Also called paperboard.
paper - Category of paper commonly
used for writing, printing and photocopying.
Also called business paper, communication paper,
correspondence paper and writing paper.
paper - Category of paper suitable
for books, magazines, catalogs, advertising and
general printing needs. Book paper is divided
into uncoated paper (also called offset paper),
coated paper (also called art paper, enamel paper,
gloss paper and slick paper) and text paper.
The decorative design or rule surrounding matter
on a page.
A photo or other image that extends across the gutter
onto both pages of the spread. Alternative terms:
crossover; reader’s spread.
The brilliance or reflectance of paper.
paper - General term referring
to paper 6 points or thicker with basis weight
between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for
products such as index cards, file folders and
The term used to indicate work printed on one of a large sheet of paper.
carton - Carton of paper from
which some of the sheets have been sold. Also
called less carton.
Build a color -
To overlap two or more screen tints to create a new color. Such an overlap
is called a build, color build, stacked screen build or tint build.
Thickness of paper relative to its basic weight.
A dot or similar marking to emphasize text.
register - Register where ink
colors meet precisely without overlapping or
allowing space between, as compared to lap register.
Also called butt fit and kiss register.
and C2S - Abbreviations for coated
one side and coated two sides.
To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during
To adjust the scale on a measuring instrument such
as a densitometer to a standard for specific conditions.
A process by which a scanner, monitor, or output
device is adjusted to provide a more accurate display
and reproduction of images.
(1)Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed
in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages
per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns)
or pages per centimeter (ppc). (2) Device on a sheetfed
press that detects double sheets or on a binding
machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.
A portion of text, usually duplicated from accompanying
text, enlarged, and set off in quotes and/or a box
to draw attention to what surrounds it.
Photographs and artwork fully prepared for reproduction
according to the technical requirements of the printing
process being used. Also called finished art and
camera service. Business using a process camera to make Photostats, halftones,
plates and other elements for printing. Also called prep service and
trade camera service.
Cast-coated paper -
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished,
hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet.
Chain lines -
(1) Widely spaced lines in laid paper. (2) Blemishes on printed images
caused by tracking.
chalking. Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that absorbs
into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun, and wind making printed
images look dusty. Also called crocking.
Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline
trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny.
A retouching function available on a color imaging
system or in an image-editing program. It is normally
used to remove image defects by replacing pixels
in the defective areas with duplicate pixels from
adjacent, non-defective areas. It can also be used
to duplicate sections of an image. Alternative term:
up - A mark used to indicate
closing space between characters or words. Usually
used in proofing stages.
Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black),
the four process colors.
screen - Halftone screen with
ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26, 34
or 40 lines centimeter).
paper - Paper with a coating
of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity
and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in
the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and
To organize printed matter in a specific order as
balance - Refers to amounts of
process colors that simulate the colors of the
original scene or photograph.
break - In multicolor printing,
the point, line or space at which one ink color
stops and another begins. Also called break for
cast - Unwanted color affecting
an entire image or portion of an image.
control bar - Strip of small
blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to
help evaluate features such as density and dot
gain. Also called color bar, color guide and
standard offset color bar.
correct - To adjust the relationship
among the process colors to achieve desirable
curves - Instructions in computer
software that allow users to change or correct
electronic prepress system -
Computer, scanner, printer and other hardware
and software designed for image assembly, color
correction, retouching and output onto proofing
materials, film or printing plates. Abbreviated
gamut - The entire range of hues
possible to reproduce using a specific device,
such as a computer screen, or system, such as
four-color process printing.
key - Brand name for an overlay
color proof. Sometimes used as a generic term
for any overlay color proof.
model - Way of categorizing and
describing the infinite array of colors found
separation - (1) Technique of
using a camera, scanner or computer to divide
continuous-tone color images into four halftone
negatives. (2) The product resulting from color
separating and subsequent four-color process
printing. Also called separation.
sequence - Order in which inks
are printed. Also called laydown sequence and
shift - Change in image color
resulting from changes in register, ink densities
or dot gain during four-color process printing.
transparency - Film (transparent)
used as art to perform color separations.
printer - Printer producing a
wide range of products such as announcements,
brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business
forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer
because each job is different.
art - Mechanical on which copy
for reproduction in all colors appears on only
one surface, not separated onto overlays.
Composite art has a tissue overlay with instructions that indicate color
proof - Proof of color separations
in position with graphics and type. Also called
final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof.
(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements,
such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for
printing. (2) In graphic design, the arrangement
of type, graphics and other elements on the page.
dummy - Simulation of a printed
piece complete with type, graphics and colors.
To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or
days before printing so that its moisture level and
temperature equal that in the pressroom. Also called
cure, mature and season.
copy - All photographs and those
illustrations having a range of shades not made
up of dots, as compared to line copy or halftones.
The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight
The process of preparing documents, capturing, and
indexing current files for use on an imaging system.
Business that makes products such as boxes, bags,
envelopes and displays.
fitting - Adjusting copy to the
allotted space, by editing the text or changing
the type size and leading.
Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate.
Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium
paper - Category of thick paper
used for products such as posters, menus, folders
and covers of paperback books.
The slight but cumulative extension of the edges of each inserted spread
or signature beyond the edges of the signature that encloses it. This
results in progressively smaller trim size on the inside pages. Alternative
terms: push out; shingling; binder’s creep.
To opaque, mask, mark, cut, or trim an illustration
or other reproduction to fit a designated area.
(1) Indicating what portion of the copy is to be
included in the final reproduction. (2) Trimming
unwanted areas of a photograph film or print.
marks - Lines near the edges
of an image indicating portions to be reproduced.
Also called cut marks and tic marks.
Type or art that continues from one page of a book
or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page.
Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.
To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good
adhesion and prevent setoff.
service representative - Employee
of a printer, service bureau, separator or other
business who coordinates projects and keeps customers
informed. Abbreviated CSR.
sizes - Paper sizes used with
office machines and small presses.
One of the four process colors. Also known as process
DCS2 Desktop Color Separation -
Developed by Quark. A DCS1 file is composed of
five files. The main file is a composite with a
low-resolution preview and pointers to the separation
files. There are four separations files, one for
each process color. DCS2 adds spot color capabilities,
and single file as well multi-file formats.
compression - A software or hardware
process that reduces the size of images so that
they occupy less storage space and can be transmitted
faster and easier. This process is accomplished
by removing the bits that define blank spaces
and other redundant data, and replacing them
with a smaller algorithm that represents the
removed bits. Data must be decompressed before
it can be used. See also: compression.
conversion - Technique of changing
digital information from its original code so
that it can be recorded by an electronic device
using a different code. Data created in one software
format may be converted to another before printing.
Data must also be converted for various output
devices, such as when RGB colors are converted
To press an image into paper so it lies below the
surface. Also called tool.
To return compressed data to its original size and
(1) Regarding ink, the relative thickness of a layer
of printed ink. (2) Regarding color, the relative
ability of a color to absorb light reflected from
it or block light passing through it. (3) Regarding
paper, the relative tightness or looseness of fibers.
range - Difference between the
darkest and lightest areas of copy. Also called
contrast ratio, copy range and tonal range.
desktop color separation (DCS). A color file format that creates five
PostScript files, one for each color (CMYK) and a data file about the
publishing - Technique of using
a personal computer to design images and pages,
and assemble type and graphics, then using a
laser printer or imagesetter to output the assembled
pages onto paper, film or printing plate. Abbreviated
colors - Hues identified by wavelength or by their place
in systems such as developed by CIE. 'Device independent' means a color
can be described and specified without regard to whether it is reproduced
using ink, projected light, photographic chemistry or any other method.
Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing
cut - To cut irregular shapes
in paper or paperboard using a die.
Digital proofing -
Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper
via laser or ink-jet.
Digital dot -
Dot created by a computer and printed out by a laser printer or imagesetter.
Digital dots are uniform in size, as compared to halftone dots that vary
digital color proof - Color proof
made by a laser, ink jet printer or other computer-controlled
device without needing to make separation films
first. Abbreviated DDCP.
technology - Those imaging systems
that receive fully paginated materials electronically
from computers and expose this information to
plates in platesetters or imagesetters without
creating film intermediates.
gain - Phenomenon of halftone
dots printing larger on paper than they are on
films or plates, reducing detail and lowering
contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread
and press gain.
Dot size -
Relative size of halftone dots as compared to dots of the screen ruling
being used. There is no unit of measurement to express dot size. Dots
are too large, too small or correct only in comparison to what the viewer
Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners,
display devices such as monitors, and output devices
such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors.
Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch.
bump - To print a single image
twice so it has two layers of ink. Also called “double
Double dot halftone -
Halftone double burned onto one plate from two halftones, one shot for
shadows the second shot for midtones and highlights.
Printing defect appearing as blurring or shadowing
of the image. Doubling may be caused by problems
with paper, cylinder alignment, blanket pressures
or dirty cylinders.
To transfer a file or files from a remote computer
to a local computer’s hard drive.
Considered as "dots per square inch," a measure of
output resolution in relationship to printers, imagesetters
Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the
substrate specified for a job. Also called pull down.
In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed
Halftone dots or fine lines eliminated from highlights
by overexposure during camera work.
halftone - Halftone in which
contrast has been increased by eliminating dots
back - Phenomenon of printed
ink colors becoming less dense as the ink dries.
offset - Using metal plates in
the printing process, which are etched to .15mm
(.0006 in) creating a right reading plate, printed
on the offset blanket transferring to paper without
the use of water.
trap - To print over dry ink,
as compared to wet trap.
bond paper - Bond paper suitable
for printing by either lithography (offset) or
xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond paper.
finish - Flat (not glossy) finish
on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte.
Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet
Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup.
Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone
negatives, each shot to emphasize different tonal
values in the original.
Duplex paper -
Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two thinner sheets, usually
of different colors. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone paper.
Offset press made for quick printing.
Brand name for photographic paper used to make blue
line proofs. Often used as alternate term for blueline.
front end (Electronic Composition) -
General term referring to a prepress system based
Electronic image assembly -
Assembly of a composite image from portions of other images and/or other
page elements using a computer.
Electronic mechanical -
Mechanical exclusively in electronic files.
publishing - (1) Publishing by
printing with device, such as a photocopy machine
or ink jet printer, driven by a computer that
can change the image instantly from one copy
to the next. (2) Publishing via output on fax,
computer bulletin board or other electronic medium,
as compared to output on paper.
To press an image into paper so it lies above the
surface. Also called cameo and tool.
Casting of light-sensitive chemicals on papers, films,
printing plates and stencils.
down/emulsion Up - Film whose
emulsion side faces down (away from the viewer)
or up (toward the viewer) when ready to make
a plate or stencil. Abbreviated ED, EU. Also
called E up/down and face down/face up.
postscript file - Computer file
containing both images and PostScript commands.
Abbreviated EPS file.
End sheet -
Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover.
Also called pastedown or end papers.
English finish -
Smooth finish on uncoated book paper; smoother than eggshell, rougher
engraving. Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an
image cut into its surface.
EP. Abbreviation for envelope.
Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually
used to transfer post script information from one
program to another.
Equivalent paper -
Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost
the same. . Also called comparable stock.
Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation
The individual performing or creating the "estimate".
To use chemicals to carve an image into metal,
glass or film.
Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also called foredge.
Also, an abbreviation for typeface referring to a family of a general
duotone - Halftone in one ink
color printed over screen tint of a second ink
color. Also called dummy duotone, dougraph, duplex
halftone, false duotone, flat tint halftone and
halftone with screen.
color inks - Inks with colors
that retain their density and resist fading as
the product is used and washed.
unit - Component of a printing
press that moves paper into the register unit.
finish - Soft woven pattern in
side - Smooth side of paper.
Ink prints more evenly on the felt side of paper.
color - Ink color used in addition
to the four needed by four-color process.
gauge - Thickness of film. The
most common gauge for graphic arts film is 0.004
inch (0.1 mm).
laminate - Thin sheet of plastic
bonded to a printed product for protection or
papers - Papers made specifically
for writing or commercial printing, as compared
to coarse papers and industrial papers. Also
called cultural papers and graphic papers.
screen - Screen with ruling of
150 lines per inch (80 lines per centimeter)
(1) Surface characteristics of paper. Paper can have
either rough or smooth finish. A smooth finish reproduces
color and detail better because light is reflected
back to the eye more uniformly. (2) General
term for trimming, folding, binding and all other
post press operations.
size - Size of product after
production is completed, as compared to flat
size. Also called trimmed size.
protocol(FTP) - The tool
used to retrieve information in the form of electronic
files from any number of computer systems linked via
the TCP/IP protocol. Users in effect transfer copies
of information found on remote computers either directly
to their own computers or to a service provider€s
network and then to their own computers. firewall.
The layer of security that protects internal computer
networks from outside intrusions, particularly from
Refers to ability of
film to be registered
during stripping and
assembly. Good fit means
that all images register
to other film for the
Costs that remain
the same regardless
of how many pieces
are printed. Copyrighting,
photography and design
are fixed costs.
(1) Any color created
by printing only
one ink, as compared
to a color created
by printing four-color
process. Also called
block color and spot
color. (2) color
that seems weak or
flat plan (Flats). Diagram of the flats for a publication showing imposition
and indicating colors.
Size of product after
printing and trimming,
but before folding,
as compared to finished
Method of printing on
a web press using rubber
or plastic plates with
raised images. Also called
aniline printing because
flexographic inks originally
used aniline dyes. Abbreviated
To print a sheet completely
with an ink or varnish.
flooding with ink is
also called painting
Cover trimmed to
the same size as
inside pages, as
compared to overhang
cover. Also called
Leaf, at the front and back of a case bound book that is the one side
of the end paper not glued to the case.
Fogging back -
Used in making type more legible by lowering density of an image, while
allowing the image to show through.
To foil stamp and
emboss an image.
Also called heat
Method of printing
that releases foil
from its backing
when stamped with
the heated die. Also
called block print,
hot foil stamp and
A bindery machine dedicated
to folding printed materials.
With printed matter,
where a fold is to
occur, usually located
at the top edges.
Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart.
Also called gatefold and pullout.
(page number) -
The actual page number
in a publication.
Each side of a signature. Also spelled forme.
Size, style, shape, layout
or organization of a
layout or printed product.
Form bond -
Lightweight bond, easy to perforate, made for business forms. Also called
Roller(s) that come
in contact with the
printing plate, bringing
it ink or water.
for position only. Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used
on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for
reproduction. Abbreviated FPO.
In the case book arena,
the binding process which
involves folding, rounding,
backing, head banding
Trough or container,
on a printing press,
that holds fluids such
as ink, varnish or water.
Also called duct.
Fountain solution -
Mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent
ink from adhering to the non-image area. Also called dampener solution.
printing - Technique of printing that uses black, magenta,
cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process
printing, full color printing and process printing, 4-cp.
Paper made from cooked
wood fibers mixed
with chemicals and
washed free of impurities,
as compared to ground
wood paper. Also
called wood free
fold - A
printed sheet, printed
one side only, folded
with two right angle
folds to form a four
page uncut section.
from 0 percent coverage
in its highlights
to 100 percent coverage
in its shadows.
Full-scale black -
Black separation made to have dots throughout the entire tonal range
of the image, as compared to half-scale black and skeleton black. Also
called full-range black.
Proof of type from
any Source, whether
metal type or photo
type. Also called checker
and slip proof.
(1) To halftone or separate
more than one image in
only one exposure. (2)
Getting the most out
of a printing press by
using the maximum sheet
size to print multiple
images or jobs on the
same sheet. A way to
Gate fold -
A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter in overlapping
next to each other in
the proper sequence for
binding, as compared
to nested. Also called
Ghost halftone -
Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to produce a very faint
(1) Phenomenon of a faint
image appearing on a
printed sheet where it
was not intended to appear.
Chemical ghosting refers
to the transfer of the
faint image from the
front of one sheet to
the back of another sheet.
Mechanical ghosting refers
to the faint image appearing
as a repeat of an image
on the same side of the
sheet. (2) Phenomenon
of printed image appearing
too light because of
One billion bits.
One thousand megabytes
or one billion bytes.
Mostly in the book arena,
gold leafing the edges
of a book.
1. Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry
(e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish). 2. Amount of shine
reflected by a paper’s surface. Shinier paper makes ink look brighter.
Varying degrees of gloss for coated papers: wash coating (least glossy),
matte coating, dull coating (suede or velvet), gloss coating, ultra gloss
coating, cast coating (most glossy).
Ink used and printed
on coated stock such
as the ink will dry
of paper quality. Offset
papers are graded from
1 (highest quality) to
5 (lowest quality). Grade
may also refer to the
brightness of a paper:#1
grade reflects 85% of
blue light, whereas #5
grade reflects 70 –74%.
screen tint -
Screen tint that
gradually and smoothly,
not in distinct steps.
Also called degrade,
screen and vignette.
Grain direction -
Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during
manufacturing. Also called machine direction.
Grain long paper -
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also
called long grain paper and narrow web paper.
short paper -
Paper whose fibers
run parallel to the
short dimension of
the sheet. Also called
short grain paper
and wide web paper.
Basis weight of paper
in grams per square meter
The crafts, industries
and professions related
to designing and
printing on paper
and other substrates.
arts film -
Film whose emulsion
yields high contrast
images suitable for
reproduction by a
printing press, as
compared to continuous-tone
film. Also called
litho film and repro
Arrangement of type
and visual elements
along with specifications
for paper, ink colors
and printing processes
that, when combined,
convey a visual message.
Visual elements that
supplement type to make
printed messages more
clear or interesting.
Method of printing using
metal cylinders etched
with millions of tiny
wells that hold ink.
Printed cyan, magenta
and yellow halftone
dots that accurately,
reproduce a neutral
component replacement -
Technique of replacing
gray tones in the
yellow, cyan and
magenta films, made
while color separating,
with black ink. Abbreviated
GCR. Also called
Number of distinct
gray tones that can
be reproduced by
Strip of gray values
ranging from white
to black. Used by
process camera and
to calibrate exposure
times for film and
plates. Also called
Alternate term for
binding edge when
referring to perfect
inch (3 mm) along
the spine that is
ground off gathered
Edge of a sheet held
by grippers on a
sheet fed press,
thus going first
through the press.
Also called feeding
edge and leading
wood paper -
Newsprint and other
made from pulp created
when wood chips are
rather than refined
The unit of measurement
for paper weight (grams
per square meter).
In the book arena, the
inside margins toward
the back or the binding
Subjective term referring
to very small space,
thin line or close
register. The meaning
depends on who is using
the term and in what
made to have dots
only in the shadows
and midtones, as
compared to full-scale
black and skeleton
(1) To photograph or
scan a continuous tone
image to convert the
image into halftone dots.
(2) A photograph or continuous-tone
illustration that has
been halftoned and appears
on film, paper, printing
plate or the final printed
Piece of film or
a grid of lines that
breaks light into
dots. Also called
contact screen and
Faint shadow sometimes
dots printed. Also
The halo itself is
also called a fringe.
Halftone dots with
no halos or soft
edges, as compared
to soft dots.
of paper and/or acetate
and made using paste-up
techniques, as compared
to electronic mechanical.
At the top of a page,
Imposition with heads
(tops) of pages facing
tails (bottoms) of other
Web press equipped
with an oven to dry
ink, thus able to
print coated paper.
Spot or imperfection
in printing, most visible
in areas of heavy ink
coverage, caused by dirt
on the plate or blanket.
Also called bulls eye
and fish eye.
using six, eight
or twelve separations,
as compared to four-color
Photo whose most
appear in the highlights.
Lightest portions of
a photograph or halftone,
as compared to midtones
Perfect bound cover
scored 1/8 inch (3mm)
from the spine so
it folds at the hinge
instead of, along
the edge of the spine.
Abbreviation for hue,
one of the color-control
options often found in
software, for design
and page assembly. Also
Printing defect caused
when a piece of dirt
or an air bubble
leaving an area of
weak ink coverage
or visible dot gain.
Paper kept in stock
by a printer and
suitable for a variety
of printing jobs.
Also called floor
A specific color such
as yellow or green.
The actual area on
the printed matter
that is not restricted
to ink coverage.
The alteration or
manipulation of images
that have been scanned
or captured by a
device. Can be used
to modify or improve
the image by changing
its size, color,
contrast, and brightness,
or to compare and
analyze images for
the human eye could
not perceive unaided.
This ability to perceive
in color, shape,
has opened up many
application s for
Laser output device using
Arrangement of pages
on mechanicals or flats
so they will appear in
proper sequence after
press sheets are folded
and bound. The process
of placing graphics into
on a press-size sheet
of paper. Page
layout is the process
of defining where repeating
elements such as headlines,
text, and folios (page
numbers) will appear
on multiple pages throughout
a document, while imposition
can be thought of as
defining where these
completed pages will
appear on much larger
sheets of paper.
Arranging pages on
a form during stripping
so that the top of
one page is located
adjacent to the top
of the opposite page.
A guide that indicates
how images should
be assembled on the
sheet to meet press,
folding, and bindery
cameras or computerized
methods of assembling
the units of pages
into signatures for
printing. The latter
method is often referred
to as digital imposition.
(1) Referring to an ink
color, one impression
equals one press sheet
passing once through
a printing unit. (2)
Referring to speed of
a press, one impression
equals one press sheet
passing once through
Impression cylinder -
Cylinder, on a press, that pushes paper against the plate or blanket,
thus forming the image. Also called impression roller.
To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an
employee's name on business cards.
color image -
An image where each
pixel value is used
as an index to a
palette for interpretation
before it can be
displayed. Such images
contain a palette
which has been initialized
a given image. The
pixel values are
usually 8-bit and
the palette 24-bit
Relationship of the
densities and dot
gains of process
inks to each other
and to a standard
density of neutral
Reservoir, on a printing
press, that holds
paper that prevents
it from absorbing
ink, thus allowing
ink to dry on the
surface of the paper.
Also called holdout.
jet printing -
Method of printing
by spraying droplets
of ink through computer-controlled
nozzles. Also called
Form (side of the
press sheet) whose
images all appear
inside the folded
signature, as compared
to outer form.
Department of an
or association that
does printing for
a parent organization.
Also called captive
printer and in-house
Within a publication,
an additional item positioned
into the publication
loose (not bound in).
method whose image
carriers are surfaces
with two levels,
having inked areas
lower than non-inked
areas. Gravure and
engraving are the
most common forms
of intaglio. Also
called recess printing.
Color proof of separations
shown on one piece
of proofing paper,
as compared to an
overlay proof. Also
proof, laminate proof,
plastic proof and
Printed pages loosely
inserted in a publication.
A number assigned to
a published work and
usually found either
on the title page or
the back of the title
page. Considered an International
Standard Book Number.
Edges of artwork such
as text having a choppy,
saw tooth appearance.
Resulting from using
bitmap created artwork
rather than vector
created artwork. Highly
lot paper -
Paper that didn't
when produced, has
or for other reasons
is no longer considered
A number assigned
to a specific printing
project in a printing
company for use in
tracking and historical
Form used by service
and printers to specify
of a job and the
materials it needs.
Also called docket,
and work order.
A vibration machine with
a slopping platform to
even-up stacks of printed
(joint pictures expert
The committee which
set standards for
a file format for
graphics. The JPEG
file format is a
with some loss of
quality during compression.
A popular web format
due to the generally
small size of pictures.
File formats of .jpg,
.jpeg, and .jpe.
for black in four-color
process printing. Hence
the 'K' in CMYK.
(1) The screw that
controls ink flow
from the ink fountain
of a printing press.
(2) To relate loose
pieces of copy to
their positions on
a layout or mechanical
using a system of
numbers or letters.
(3) Alternate term
for the color black,
as in 'key plate.'
Lines on a mechanical
or negative showing
the exact size, shape
and location of photographs
or other graphic
elements. Also called
Negative or Plate -
Negative or plate
that prints the most
detail, thus whose
image guides the
register of images
from other plates.
Also called key printer.
A measurement unit
used to describe
the size of computer
files. A kilobyte
is equivalent to
1024 bytes or characters
Die Cut -
ut the top layer,
but not the backing
layer, of self-adhesive
paper. Also called
will transfer ink
to a Substrate.
Strong paper used
for wrapping and
to make grocery bags
and large envelopes.
Finish on bond or
text paper on which
grids of parallel
lines simulate the
surface of handmade
paper. Laid lines
are close together
and run against the
grain; chain lines
are farther apart
and run with the
A thin transparent
plastic sheet (coating)
applied to usually
a thick stock (covers,
post cards, etc.)
and heavy use,
and usually accents
providing a glossy
(or lens) effect.
Artist style in which
width is greater
than height. (Portrait
Register where ink
colors overlap slightly,
as compared to butt
Bond paper made especially
smooth and dry to
run well through
Ink that will not
fade or blister as
the paper on which
it is printed is
used in a laser printer.
Flat Bind -
Method of perfect
binding that allows
a publication to
lie fully open. (Also
known as Lay Flat
The edge of a sheet
of paper feeding
into a press.
A sample of the original
position of printed
Amount of space between
lines of type.
One sheet of paper
in a publication.
Each side of a leaf
is one page.
Strong, smooth bond
paper used for keeping
Also called record
Two folds creating
three panels that
allow a sheet of
letterhead to fit
a business envelope.
Also called barrel
fold and wrap around
In North America,
8 1/2' x 11' sheets.
In Europe, A4 sheets.
a specific matter
how to use. In regard
to maps and tables,
an explanation of
signs (symbols) used.
Method of printing
from raised surfaces,
either metal type
or plates whose surfaces
have been etched
away from image areas.
Also called block
Book paper with basis
weight less than
40# (60 gsm).
Substance in trees
that holds cellulose
Free sheet has most
lignin removed; ground
wood paper contains
type, as compared
copy. Also called
line art and line
Negative made from
Embossed finish on
text paper that simulates
the pattern of linen
Method of printing
using plates whose
image areas attract
ink and whose non-image
areas repel ink.
Non-image areas may
be coated with water
to repel the oily
ink or may have a
surface, such as
silicon, that repels
Area on a mechanical
within which images
will print. Also
called safe area.
A company, partnership
or corporate creation
(design) that denotes
a unique entity.
A possible combination
of letters and art
work to create a "sole" entity
symbol of that specific
Binding method allowing
insertion and removal
of pages in a publication
Proof of a halftone
or color separation
that is not assembled
with other elements
from a page, as compared
to composite proof.
Also called first
proof, random proof,
scatter proof and
Lens built into a
small stand. Used
to inspect copy,
film, proofs, plates
and printing. Also
called glass and
Key Photo -
Photo whose most
appear in the shadows.
Glazed (MG) -
Paper holding a high-gloss
finish only on one
One of the four
(1) All activities
required to prepare
a press or other
machine to function
for a specific printing
or bindery job, as
compared to production
run. Also called
setup. (2) Paper
used in the make-ready
process at any stage
in production. Make-ready
paper is part of
waste or spoilage.
Order for paper that
a mill makes to the
as compared to a
mill order or stock
Die that applies
pressure during embossing
or debossing. Also
called force card.
An author's original
form of work (hand
written, typed or
on disk) submitted
Imprinted space around
the edge of the printed
usually on a "dummy."
To prevent light
from reaching part
of an image, therefore
isolating the remaining
part. Also called
Paper or plastic
plate used on a duplicating
A form of a four-color-process
finish on photographic
paper or coated printing
of type, graphic
and other copy complete
to the printer. A
hard mechanical consists
of paper and/or acetate,
is made using paste-up
techniques, and may
also be called an
art board, board
or paste-up. A soft
called an electronic
as a file of type
and other images
assembled using a
To bind using a comb,
coil, ring binder,
post or any other
technique not requiring
gluing, sewing or
Color breaks made
on the mechanical
using a separate
overlay for each
color to be printed.
Lines or patterns
formed with dots
One million bits.
One million bytes.
Ink containing powdered
metal or pigments
that simulate metal.
Paper coated with
a thin film of plastic
or pigment whose
color and gloss simulate
In a photograph or
created by dots between
30 percent and 70
percent of coverage,
as compared to highlights
1/1000 Inch -
The thickness of
plastic films as
are expressed in
Phenomenon of droplets
of ink being thrown
off the roller train.
Also called flying
A reproduction of
the original printed
matter and possibly
Mostly used over
phone lines, a device
that converts electronic
from point a. to
resulting when halftones
and screen tints
are made with improperly
or when a pattern
in a photo, such
as a plaid, interfaces
with a halftone dot
Paper size (7' x
10') and envelope
shape often used
for personal stationery.
Spotty, uneven ink
called sinkage. A
mottled image may
be called mealy.
A specific type of
glue used for books
binding and personal
pads needing strength.
Printing in more
than one ink color
(but not four-color
process). Also called
Weight of 1,000 sheets
of paper in any specific
Very light brown
color of paper. May
also be called antique,
cream, ivory, off-white
or mellow white.
inside one another
in the proper sequence
for binding, as
compared to gathered.
Also called inset.
Gray with no hue
Paper used in printing
low quality and "a
short life use."
Flaw in a photograph
or halftone that
looks like a drop
of oil or water.
In the book binding
process, a stage
where air is expelled
from it's contents
at the sewing stage.
Web press without
a drying oven, thus
not able to print
on coated paper.
Also called cold-set
web and open web.
Printing using lasers,
ions, ink jets or
heat to transfer
images to paper.
Light blue that does
not record on graphic
arts film, therefore
may be used to preprint
layout grids and
on mechanicals. Also
called blue pencil,
drop-out blue, fade-out
blue and non-repro
Printing on products
such as coasters,
golf balls and ashtrays,
known as advertising
specialties or premiums.
that transfers ink
from a plate to a
blanket to paper
instead of directly
from plate to paper.
of paper or other
on one side from
the other side.
of ink that prevents
the substrate from
A specific lightweight
type (kind) of paper
usually used in the
past for air mail.
Seldom used today
(in the typewriter
The state of a computer
being connected to
with another electronic
device for the purpose
of distributing or
(1) Not transparent.
(2) To cover flaws
in negative with
tape or opaquing
paint. Also called
block out and spot.
Hardware and software
that link desktop
with color electronic
images are stored
on a central network
server, and low-resolution
files are used for
etc. in the page
layout program. At
output time, the
are swapped for the
Form (side of a press
images for the first
and last pages of
the folded signature
(its outside pages)
as compared to inner
Halftone in which
background has been
removed or replaced
to isolate or silhouette
the main image. Also
called knockout halftone
and silhouette halftone.
Layer of material
taped to a mechanical,
photo or proof. Acetate
overlays are used
to separate colors
by having some type
or art on them instead
of on the mounting
board. Tissue overlays
are used to carry
the underlying copy
and to protect the
Color proof consisting
of polyester sheets
laid on top of each
other with their
image in register,
as compared to integral
proof. Each sheet
represents the image
to be printed in
one color. Also called
celluloid proof and
To print one image
over a previously
printed image, such
as printing type
over a screen tint.
Also called surprint.
matter beyond order.
Overage policy varies
in the printing industry.
avoid blind knowledge.
One side of a leaf
in a publication.
Total number of pages
that a publication
has. Also called
A computer file format
that preserves a
printed or electronic
type fonts, and graphics
as one unit for electronic
transfer and viewing.
The recipient uses
compatible "reader" software
to access and even
print the PDF file.
Proof of type and
graphics as they
will look on the
finished page complete
with elements such
as headings, rules
In the book arena,
the numbering of
Sheet printed with
ink edge to edge,
as compared to spot
color. The painted
sheet refers to the
final product, not
the press sheet,
and means that 100
results from bleeds
off all four sides.
One page of a brochure,
such as one panel
of a rack brochure.
One panel is on one
side of the paper.
A letter-folded sheet
has six panels, not
A printing plate
made of strong and
durable paper in
the short run offset
arena (cost effective
with short runs).
Method of folding.
Two parallel folds
to a sheet will produce
Any sheet larger
than 11' x 17' or
Chipboard with another
paper pasted to it.
To paste copy to
mounting boards and,
if necessary, to
overlays so it is
assembled into a
The mechanical produced
is often called a
meaning printer error
and showing a mistake
by a typesetter,
or printer as compared
to an error by the
To bind sheets that
have been ground
at the spine and
are held to the cover
by glue. Also called
adhesive bind, cut-back
bind, glue bind,
paper bind, patent
bind, soft bind and
soft cover. See also
Burst Perfect Bind.
Press capable of
printing both sides
of the paper during
a single pass. Also
called duplex press
On a "dummy" marking
where the perforation
is to occur.
Taking place on a
press or a binder
a line of small dotted
wholes for the purpose
of tearing-off a
part of a printed
matter (usually straight
lines, vertical or
A unit of measure
in the printing industry.
A pica is approximately
0.166 in. There are
12 points to a pica.
Engraving done using
Brand name for a
process used to make
positive paper prints
of line copy and
used as alternate
Brand name of popular
typically used for
Brand name for a
process used to make
positive paper prints
of line copy and
used as alternate
Phenomenon of ink
pulling bits of coating
or fiber away from
the surface of paper
as it travels through
the press, thus leaving
unprinted spots in
the image area.
Artwork, used in
a previous job, to
be incorporated in
a current job.
Small holes (unwanted)
in printed areas
because of a variety
Technique of registering
and printing plates
by using small holes,
all of equal diameter,
at the edges of both
flats and plates.
Short for picture
element, a dot made
by a computer, scanner
or other digital
device. Also called
A technique used
to represent areas
of complex detail
as relatively large
square or rectangular
blocks of discrete,
uniform colors or
Printing method whose
image carriers are
level surfaces with
inked areas separated
from non-inked areas
by chemical means.
and spirit duplicating.
Piece of paper, metal,
plastic or rubber
carrying an image
to be reproduced
using a printing
(1) In quick printing,
a process camera
that makes plates
In commercial lithography,
a machine with a
vacuum frame used
to expose plates
or positives fully
prepared for platemaking.
Color that the customer
even though it may
not precisely match
scenes or objects.
to Pantone Matching
System. The correct
trade name of the
colors in the Pantone
Matching System is
Pantone colors, not
Abbreviation for photomechanical
(1) Regarding paper, a unit of thickness equating 1/1000 inch. (2)
Regarding type, a unit of measure equaling 1/12 pica and .013875 inch
An art design in which the height is greater than the width. (Opposite
Position Stat -
Photocopy or PMT of a photo or illustration made to size and affixed
to a mechanical.
Positive Film -
Film that prevents light from passing through images, as compared to
negative film that allows light to pass through. Also called knockout
Post Bind -
To bind using a screw and post inserted through a hole in a pile of
Adobe Systems, Inc. trade name for a page description language that
enables imagesetters and other output devices developed by different
companies to interpret electronic files from any number of personal
computers ("front ends") and off-the-shelf software programs.
An orderly procedure using a checklist to verify that all components
of an electronic file are present and correct prior to submitting the
document for high-resolution output.
Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress
functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau prior
to printing. Also called preparation.
Prepress Proof -
Any color proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays, as compared
to a press proof printed using ink. Also called dry proof and off-press
To print portions of sheets that will be used for later imprinting.
Press Check -
Event at which make-ready sheets from the press are examined before
authorizing full production to begin.
Press Proof -
Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper specified for the
job. Also called strike off and trial proof.
Press Time -
(1) Amount of time that one printing job spends on press, including
time required for make-ready. (2) Time of day at which a printing job
goes on press.
Price Break -
Quantity at which unit cost of paper or printing drops.
How well a paper runs through a press.
Printer Pairs -
Usually in the book arena, consecutive pages as they appear on a flat
Printer Spreads -
Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as compared to reader
Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from
an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory,
stencil, die or plate.
Printing Plate -
Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing uses paper
or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and commercial lithography
use metal plates; flexography uses rubber or soft plastic plates. Gravure
printing uses a cylinder. The screen printing is also called a plate.
Printing Unit -
Assembly of fountain, rollers and cylinders that will print one ink
color. Also called color station, deck, ink station, printer, station
Process Camera -
Camera used to photograph mechanicals and other camera-ready copy.
Also called copy, camera and graphic arts camera. A small, simple process
camera may be called a stat camera.
Process Color(Inks) -
The colors used for four-color process printing: yellow, magenta, cyan
Production Run -
Press run intended to manufacture products as specified, as compared
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press
and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
Proofreader Marks -
Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and
proofs. Also called correction marks.
Proportion Scale -
Round device used to calculate percent that an original image must
by reduced or enlarged to yield a specific reproduction size. Also
called percentage wheel, proportion dial, proportion wheel and scaling
Publishing Paper -
Paper made in weights, colors and surfaces suited to books, magazines,
catalogs and free-standing inserts.
Subjective term relating to expectations by the customer, printer and
other professionals associated with a printing job and whether the
job meets those expectations.
(1) Sheet folded twice, making pages one-fourth the size of the original
sheet. A quarto makes an 8-page signature. (2) Book made from quarto
sheets, traditionally measuring about 9' x 12'.
Quick Printing -
Printing using small sheet fed presses, called duplicators, using cut
sizes of bond and offset paper.
Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.
Rag Paper -
Stationery or other forms of stock having a strong percentage content
of "cotton rags."
Rainbow Fountain -
Technique of putting ink colors next to each other in the same ink
fountain and oscillating the ink rollers to make the colors merge where
they touch, producing a rainbow effect.
Raster Image Processor(RIP) -
Device that translates page description commands into bitmapped information
for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter. PostScript
or another page description language serves as an interface between
the page layout workstation and the RIP.
The process of converting mathematical and digital information into
a series of variable density pixels.
This may be a Photoshop RAW file, which is a PSD file with no identifying
header. Or it may be a minimally formatted image data dump.
Reader Spread -
Mechanicals made in two page spreads as readers would see the pages,
as compared to printer spread.
500 sheets of paper.
Recycled Paper -
New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.
Reflective Copy -
Products, such as fabrics, illustrations and photographic prints, viewed
by light reflected from them, as compared to transparent copy. Also
called reflex copy.
To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other
printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.
Register Marks -
Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates,
and printing in register. Also called cross marks and position marks.
Relief Printing -
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels having
inked areas higher than non-inked areas. Relief printing includes block
printing, flexography and letter press.
Ability of a device, such as an imagesetter, to produce film or plates
that yield images in register.
General term for xerography, diazo and other methods of copying used
by designers, engineers, architects or for general office use.
(1) The density of dots or pixels on a page or display usually measured
in dots per inch. The higher the resolution, the smoother the appearance
of text or graphics. (2) The precision (“sharpness”) with
which an optical, photographic, or photomechanical system can render
visual image detail. Resolution is a measure of image sharpness or
the performance of an optical system. It is expressed in lines per
inch or millimeter.
Resolution Target -
An image, such as the GATF Star Target, that permits evaluation of
resolution on film, proofs or plates.
Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its
outline, thus allowing the underlying color or paper to show through
and form the image. The image 'reverses out' of the ink color. Also
called knockout and liftout.
Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries.
Right Reading -
Copy that reads correctly in the language in which it is written. Also
describes a photo whose orientation looks like the original scene,
as compared to a flopped image.
Rotary Press -
Printing press which passes the substrate between two rotating cylinders
when making an impression.
Round Back Bind -
To casebind with a rounded (convex) spine, as compared to flat back
Microsoft's Rich Text Format, which is normally used as a well-understood
cross-platform word processing document format, but which can store
pictures as well as text.
Line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy.
Map or drawing given by a printer to a stripper showing how a printing
job must be imposed using a specific press and sheet size. Also called
press layout, printer's layout and ruleout.
Saddle Stitch -
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as
compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and
Satin Finish -
Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.
To identify the percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged
or reduced to achieve, the correct size for printing.
Electronic device used to scan an image.
To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and
accurately. Also called crease.
Screen Angles -
Angles at which screens intersect with the horizontal line of the press
sheet. The common screen angles for separations are black 45 degree,
magenta 75 degree, yellow 90 degree and cyan 105 degree.
Screen Density -
Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows
to print. Also called screen percentage.
Screen Printing -
Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly
of mesh fabric and a stencil.
Screen Ruling -
Number of rows or lines of dots per inch or centimeter in a screen
for making a screen tint or halftone. Also called line count, ruling,
screen frequency, screen size and screen value.
Screen Tint -
Color created by dots instead of solid ink coverage. Also called Benday,
fill pattern, screen tone, shading, tint and tone.
Selective Binding -
Placing signatures or inserts in magazines or catalogs according to
demographic or geographic guidelines.
Self Cover -
Usually in the book arena, a publication not having a cover stock.
A publication only using text stock throughout.
Self Mailer -
A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable of
travel in the mailing arena independently.
Separated Art -
Art with elements that print in the base color on one surface and elements
that print in other colors on other surfaces. Also called preseparated
Usually in the four-color process arena, separate film holding images
of one specific color per piece of film. Black, Cyan, Magenta and Yellow.
Can also separate specific PMS colors through film.
Serigraphic Printing -
Printing method whose image carriers are woven fabric, plastic or metal
that allow ink to pass through some portions and block ink from passing
through other portions. Serigraphic printing includes screen and mimeograph.
Service Bureau -
Business using imagesetters to make high resolution printouts of files
prepared on microcomputers. Also called output house and prep service.
Undesirable transfer of wet ink from the top of one sheet to the underside
of another as they lie in the delivery stack of a press. Also called
Hue made darker by the addition of black, as compared to tint.
Darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as compared to midtones
Sheet fed Press -
Press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a web press.
Technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set of plates, then
the other side of the sheet with a set of different plates. Also called
work and back.
Allowance, made during paste-up or stripping, to compensate for creep.
Creep is the problem; shingling is the solution. Also called stair
stepping and progressive margins.
Side stitch -
To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as compared to
saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and side wire.
Printed sheet folded at least once, possibly many times, to become
part of a book, magazine or other publication.
Compound mixed with paper or fabric to make it stiffer and less able
to absorb moisture.
Slip Sheets -
Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned
between the "printed run" for a variety of reasons.
The amount a paper is polished and coated to create an even surface.
Smooth papers reproduce color and detail better than rough papers because
they reflect light back more uniformly. Smoothness of uncoated papers
is classified as follows: mimeo (roughest), vellum, antique, eggshell,
wove, satin, and luster (smoothest). Coated papers: see gloss.
Soft Dots -
Halftones dots with halos.
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared
to a screen tint.
Soy-based Inks -
Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products as pigment
vehicles, thus are easier on the environment.
Specially Printer -
Printer whose equipment, supplies, work flow and marketing is targeted
to a particular category of products.
Complete and precise written description of features of a printing
job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing
or binding method. Abbreviated specs.
Instrument used to measure the index of refraction of color.
Specular Highlight -
Highlight area with no printable dots, thus no detail, as compared
to a diffuse highlight. Also called catchlight and dropout highlight.
Back or binding edge of a publication
Spiral Bind -
To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through
holes. Also called coil bind.
Split Fountain -
Technique of putting ink colors next to each other in the same ink
fountain and printing them off the same plate. Split fountains keep
edges of colors distinct, as compared to rainbow fountains that blend
Split Run -
(1) Different images, such as advertisements, printed in different
editions of a publication. (2) Printing of a book that has some copies
bound one way and other copies bound another way.
Paper that, due to mistakes or accidents, must be thrown away instead
of delivered printed to the customer, as compared to waste.
Spot Color or Varnish -
One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to flood
or painted sheet.
(1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or
production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an
image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Also called
Conditions - Background of 60 percent neutral gray
and light that measures 5000 degrees Kelvin the color of daylight on
a bright day. Also called lighting standards.
Short for Photostat, therefore a general term for an inexpensive photographic
print of line copy or halftone.
Control - Method used by printers to ensure quality
and delivery times specified by customers. Abbreviated SPC.
Step and Repeat -
Prepress technique of exposing an image in a precise, multiple pattern
to create a flat or plate. Images are said to be stepped across the
film or plate.
Stocking Paper -
Popular sizes, weights and colors of papers available for prompt delivery
from a merchant's warehouse.
Stock Order -
Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a printer from inventory
at a warehouse, as compared to a mill order.
String Score -
Score created by pressing a string against paper, as compared to scoring
using a metal edge.
To assemble images on film for platemaking. Stripping involves correcting
flaws in film, assembling pieces of film into flats and ensuring that
film and flats register correctly. Also called film assembly and image
Substance Weight -
Alternate term for basis weight, usually referring to bond papers.
Also called sub weight.
Stumping (Blocking) -
In the book arena, hot die, foil or other means in creating an image
on a case bound book.
Any surface or material on which printing is done.
Subtractive Color -
Color produced by light reflected from a surface, as compared to additive
color. Subtractive color includes hues in color photos and colors created
by inks on paper.
Color - Yellow, magenta and cyan. In the graphic arts,
these are known as process colors because, along with black, they are
the inks colors used in color-process printing.
Supercalendered Paper -
Paper calendered using alternating chrome and fiber rollers to produce
a smooth, thin sheet. Abbreviated SC paper.
Swash Book -
A book in a variety of forms, indicating specific stock in specific
colors in a specific thickness.
Abbreviation for specifications for web offset publications, specifications
recommended for web printing of publications.
Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of a broadsheet.
Grade of dense, strong paper used for products such as badges and file
Tagged Image File
Format(TIFF, TIF) - Computer file format used to store
images from scanners and video devices. Abbreviated TIFF. A TIFF file
permits the image to be edited in other applications (ie, QuarkXpress,
and Macromedia Freehand)
Target Ink Densities -
Densities of the four process inks as recommended for various printing
processes and grades of paper. See also Total Area Coverage.
Concerning a printing project's basic details in regard to its dimensions.
A standard layout.
One thousand gigabytes or one million megabytes.
Text Paper -
Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid
or linen. Some mills also use 'text' to refer to any paper they consider
top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture.
Method of printing using colorless resin powder that takes on the color
of underlying ink. Also called raised printing.
Initial ideas jotted on virtually anything in regard to initial concept
of a future project.
Screening or adding white to a solid color for results of lightening
that specific color.
Tip In -
Usually in the book arena, adding an additional page(s) beyond the
normal process (separate insertion).
Tone Compression -
Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to printed reproduction.
Total Area Coverage -
Total of the dot percentages of the process colors in the final film.
Abbreviated for TAC. Also called density of tone, maximum density,
shadow saturation, total dot density and total ink coverage.
Touch Plate -
Plate that accents or prints a color that four-color process printing
cannot reproduce well enough or at all. Also called kiss plate.
Trade Shop -
Service bureau, printer or bindery working primarily for other graphic
arts professionals, not for the general public.
Positive photographic image on film allowing light to pass through.
Also called chrome, color transparency and tranny. Often abbreviated
To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such as varnish,
over an ink. The first liquid traps the second liquid. See also Dry
Traps and Wet Traps.
Trim Size -
The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished
trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).
Type 1 -
A format for storing digital typefaces developed by Adobe Systems.
The most popular typeface format for PostScript printers.
Uncoated Paper -
Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.
Undercolor Addition -
Technique of making color separations that increases the amount of
cyan, magenta or yellow ink in shadow areas. Abbreviated UCA.
Undercolor Removal -
Technique of making color separations such that the amount of cyan,
magenta and yellow ink is reduced in midtones and shadow areas while
the amount of black is increased. Abbreviated UCR.
locator(URL) - The World Wide Web address of a company,
service, or other information resource.
Convention(UCC) - A system to protect unique work from
reproducing without knowledge from the originator. To qualify, one
must register their work and publish a (c) indicating registration.
Unsharp Masking -
Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear
sharper (in better focus) than the original photo or the first proof.
Also called edge enhancement and peaking.
Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed in one impression
on a single sheet. "Two up" or "three up" means printing the identical
piece twice or three times on each sheet.
UV Coating -
Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet
The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a color. Also called brightness,
lightness, shade and tone.
Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.
Vellum Finish -
Somewhat rough, toothy finish.
Brand name for high-contrast photographic paper.
Viewing Booth -
Small area or room that is set up for proper viewing of transparencies,
color separations or press sheets. Also called color booth. See also
Standard Viewing Conditions.
Decorative design or illustration fade to white.
Vignette Halftone -
Halftone whose background gradually and smoothly fades away. Also called
Virgin Paper -
Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to
Abbreviation for volatile organic compounds, petroleum substances used
as the vehicles for many printing inks.
Wash Up -
To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers, fountains, screens,
and other press components.
Unusable paper or paper damage during normal make-ready, printing or
binding operations, as compared to spoilage.
Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing
from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.
Web Break -
Split of the paper as it travels through a web press, causing operators
to rethread the press.
Web Gain -
Unacceptable stretching of paper as it passes through the press.
Web Press -
Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets
after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many
sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called
8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).
Wet Trap -
To print ink or varnish over wet ink, as compared to dry trap.
In a printed product, a die-cut hole revealing an image on the sheet
behind it. (2) On a mechanical, an area that has been marked for placement
of a piece of artwork.
Windows Metafile(WMF) -
an intermediate vector file format for Windows programs to use when
interchanging data and, generally speaking, should never be seen anywhere
Wire Side -
Side of the paper that rests against The Fourdrinier wire during papermaking,
as compared to felt side.
With the Grain -
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared
to against the grain. See also Grain Direction.
Woodfree Paper -
Made with chemical pulp only. Paper usually classified as calendered
Working Film -
Intermediate film that will be copied to make final film after all
corrections are made. Also called buildups.
Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually a fine textured
Wrong Reading -
An image that is backwards when compared to the original. Also called
flopped and reverse reading.
Computer screen displays that approximate the true size and true shape
of typographic characters, rules, tints, and graphics.
Short for What You See Is What You Print, and pronounced wizzy-whip,
refers to the ability of a computer system to print colors exactly
as they appear on a monitor. WYSIWYP printing requires a special program,
called a color management system (CMS) to calibrate the monitor and